miércoles, 1 de noviembre de 2017

Entry 14 Having our own profolio

Having a porforlio is similar to keep every piece of writing I made. It is important to do this because I can go back and check certain material and expressions. And from there, move forward. I was able to sit on a computer and start writing about many topics. As I am a very destractive person and bad at using computers, I felt obliged to take time and dedicate, with great effort, to write and keep track on my writings. Despite of the fact that I'll have a summary of each chapters, it is easier, for me at lkeatm to re-read all the material befor sitting for the final exam. So, in that case, my profolio will not help me. However, It might help other mates. I always need to read from the original text and make comments or mindmaps.

Entry 13 Reflection of writing improvement

As regard to the theory which we have read so far, it helps me to remain focused on how I can combine the ideas in order to make a comprehensible paragraph. It is not an easy task but with time and dedication, I have been able to improve my writings. Not only my writings, but also teaching how to write. Paying attention to the analysis we made in class during this year also helep me to relate different matetial and how a text is organized as well as a paragraph. Besides, at the time I needed to write, the theory by different authors  gave us many different perspectives or views to be aware of and how to select the vocabulary, the best way to say something and the correct order of the information, and, of course, the essay.
I learnt to think about the topic and make brief explanation of the ideas I want to develop. This halped me to brush up my way of thinking and how I could edit them to say them in a better way and eliminate what it was not necessary. The use of different grammatical structures was important as well as puntuation. Both elements helped me to to improve my writing and my paragraphs.

To conclude my opinion, to improve my writing skill, is a must to read theory and put it into practise, because practice makes perfect, and having good linguistic theories will assure you that improvements camo along.

Entry 12 Videos for whaaaaaa?

domingo, 29 de octubre de 2017

PORTFOLIO 11-Chapters 18, 19 & 20.

Chapter 18: Language variety

In every single language, variations exist widespread in the world, especially when it is spoken. English is not the exception. Of course, an idealized language exists and  it has no specific region. This type of language is called STANDARD LANGUAGE and it is associated with administrative, commercial and educational centers. It is also used in the mass media and is taught in most schools. At least, that's what they believe.
Speaking a standard variety of English or any other, people speak with an accent, which refers to a restriction of the description of aspects of pronunciation in an individual level. However, the term dialect refers to the cluster of features; grammar, vocabulary and pronunciations.
The dicipline wich studies dialects rekons a criteria,which is called DIALECTOLOGY. This criteria distinguishes between two different dialects of the same language and it helps to stablish the differences between dialects.
As regard to the location of a community , it can affect the accent and how the people speak due to the features of dialects which they share. Region's dialect is related to stereotyped pronunciation and consistent features of speech founf in one geographical areacompared to another.
In order to document the differences in dialects, specialists draw a map wich represents a boundary werween the areas with regard to another particular linguistic item. This is called Isoglosses. When a number of isoglosses come together in this way, a more solid line is drawn to indicate a dialect boundary.

People who speak two dialects are called BIdialectal and whose who speak two languages are called Bilingual. The latter  is connected with members of a small community growing  up in a larger communit whiose official language is not the same, The communities need to lear both in order to be part in the larger dominant linguistic community. It is no necessary to belong to a dominant community, It also happens when parents are from different countries and their mother tongues are differen as well. So, children learn both languages. The larger community  has one official language which is selected by the gorvenment , legal and educational organizations i the country.These organizations study which variety of the languge is the best to use for official business. This is called Lnguage planning, the selection of a language as official language is followed by codification.Codifications involves studying basic grammar, dictionaries and written models which are used to stablish the standard language.
However, in order to select the official language, thera are two instances before being selected; Pidgin and Creoles. The former is a variety of language that is developed for some practical purpose, such as trading, among groups whihc are in contact with each others, but who do not know each others' languages. A pifgin language is characterized by the lack of any complex grammatical morphology and limited lexis; The latter is the result of the internalization of the pidgin as first language. Creole languages have large numbers of native speakers and are not restricted at all in their users.

Capter 19: Variations in language

Uses of language are likely to be found in the speech of some individuals in society. People, who live in the same area  or region, can differ in terms of education and economic status, they speak in different ways due to social groups or communities.
People in society creat culture and, of couse, language. How these two elements are related to each other is what Sociolinguistics studies. This is not the only discipline which studies language, Social dialects concerns wirh language in small towns and cities, However Social Class defines groups of speakers  as having something in common. Thw two main groups are identified  as "middle class", those who have more years od education and perform non-manual and "working class".Those who have fewer years of education and perform manual work of some kind.
We can also devide groups in terms of economic level;  upper and lower, making middle-class  speech another type of social dielect ir socialect. The features of a dialect are pronunciation, words por structures which are used by working-class speakers and in another form by middle-class speakers. By doing so, pronunciation indicates  the social status.
Although individuals tend to speak with a personal dialect, their way of speaking is seen to be affected by those who are near, they tend to sound like those who share similar educational  background or occupations. People who have spent more time in the sducational system tend to have more features in their spoken language that derive from the time spent with the written language. However, these features will be absent in those peolple who have spent less time in the educational system. Educational system reflects on the way of speaking  in their occupation and spcio-economic status.
Social markers are related to a particular speech sound which occurs frequently  (or not) and marks you as a member of a particular social group.  This is a social feature as well as speech style, which refers to the uses of formal ir informal speech. The former is when we pay attention  to how we are speakinf and the latter is when we pay less attetion to it known as casual style. The change from one to another by an individual is called  Style-shifting.
when an individuals try to use a prestige form associated with a higher-status group in a formal situation, they have the tendency to overuse the form. Overt prestige happens when people imitate ways of speaking from higher social status and covert prestige  ehich occurs the other way around. This type of langua, vovert or overt prestife, is attatched to imitate freatures of language (pronunciation and grammar).
We must not think that accomodation speech is the same as Pretige. Accomodation speech refers to rthe abilityn to modify our speech style toward or away from the perceived style of the person we are talking to. We can adopt a speech stle which reduces social distance, this is called Convergence. Or we can make our speech style diverge from another's by using forms that are distinctly different.
This change of style of speech has to do with the register, know to whom we are talking to in order to change and use the language aprpropiate un a specific xontext. This context can be situational,  occupational or topical. One of the defining features of register is the use of hargon, which is special technical vocabulary, usually associated with a specific area of work or interest.
Slang is the opposite to jargon,. Slang is more typically used among those who are outside established higher-status groupr. To put it in other words, It refers to colloquial English, how commo people use words and phrases in dayly life.

Chapter 20 : Cultural differences

Sociolinguistic variation is attatched to cultural differences; and aspects of languag are  identified as characteristics features of languages. The disciple which studies language and culture is anthropology.
Culture is the the group of ideas and assumptions  about the nature of things and people. Even, knowlegde which is acquired unconsciously to become a member of a society. The transition of culrure is a process in which people  categorize the world around us, people, things and ideas as distinct and identifiable categories. A category is a group with cerain features in common and it is thought of the vocabulary we learn as an inherited set of categories. These are the words for reffering to concepts  that people in social life  need to talk about.  In soma ceases, there are conceptual distinctions that are lexicalized (expressed as a single word) in one language and not in another, like phrasal verbs. These lexicalized caterories are words to refer to people who are members in society. This is called "kinship terms".

The structure of  a language is predetermined and influenced by the reality we percieve the world. The different ways of talking about the world is called Linguistic relativity, using the words provided  by our language.
The language can be categorized in some groups; one of them is Cognitive category, which refers to how people think inhereted by the language system. The second category is social. This refers to the social organization which can use and say how people are connected or related to others. There are some terms, we use, which refer to attemp tp create solidarity

Entry 10

Entry 9

domingo, 10 de septiembre de 2017

Entry 8 Literary essay

QUINTANA, Alejandro Damián

4to año

Language and Written Expression IV

Saubidet Stella

Año: 2017

Being a member of a group

Human beings are social animals. They need to be part of the world and be in contact with others. They learn, teach, experiment and exchange ideas or opinions. And by doing so, people feel the necessity of belonging to a specific group. These groups can be from different categories, such as. religion, political parties, or Greek groups, which the members are fan of videogames, among other things) . Being a GREEK used to be seen as a waste of time. Nowadays, more teenagers and more adults  play games and become members of a social group, in which the main subject of discussion is about games. This group is called “The Greeks” Not only do they talk about games, old and new ones, but they also share experiences, anecdotes, tricks and daily life problems. Additionally, the members feel accepted, understood, heard, connected and  supported.

Sharing interests and having someone to talk to are needed in order not to feel an outsider. Friends or members celebrate the  differences you may have, but never push you away. Accepting who you really are is a tep forwards to be embraced by yourself and your friends in the group, who will make you feel as belonging to the community, as a member of a second family. This may lead to be eager to help other people through music, plays or stories, as the band Sting composed a song called “An Englishman in NY” in order to represent how he felt in a new land,leaving behind his friends and family members in his mother country. It is easy to tell he knew what kind of person he was and nothing could make him feel inferior. Accepting yourself brings happiness and love. And by doing so, It will be impossible to lose faith in you or in your friends.

Having things in common with other people does not want to say you can get on well with them.  One person needs to understand  and then be understood. Being a member of a group requires great effort, effort to understand other people’s point of view and try not to judge beforehand.  It is a difficult task, but not impossible. Understanding concerns of getting to know other people in such a way you can think what they are thinking about. You can understand another person without loving but it is a necessity. To be understood ,every single person needs to overcome differences, to be aware of people exist in distinctive shapes, personalities and ways of thinking. Unfortunately, in the song called “Dancing alone” by Sting, people see how  a regime in Chile rejected and hit violently two women who had kissed on the street. This is a case in which people cannot understand others and how people cannot bear those things which are different or unknown. Another example of this kind of behaviours is shown in the film “Prayers for Bobby”. The mother of this boy does not understand and accept her son is gay. She tries to convince her being gay is wrong and unnatural.

Being understood does not come alone, connection is the third step to be a member of a group. This connection is not only with the members of this group, but also with the rest of the world. This type of connection is not merely to have a conversation,it is about exchanging points of view without fear, it will be free flowing and people talk non-stoping. As regards to all this, being connected with the members of the group opens the mind if you are willing to permit the exchange of experiences for the reason of finding the meaning of yourself. It is clear that one person alone cannot discover the correct place one should be, people find their places in society . Besides, staying connected does not want to say somebody loses privacy, quite the contrary. The moment of privacy is yours and if you want to share it with someone else is up to you. However, Some other members of the group may be dealing with the same problemas as you are or they may have the same goals as you want to achieve. It is important to feel free to speak to them , no matter what the subject or topic is.

Maintaining contact with other members is as important as feeling supported by them. Members provide all sort of helps or strategies to improve the group needs or individual needs. Stressful situations are brought on  by the lack of communication with others. It is a need to eliminate all bad emotions, negative thinking, and sadness. For it is worth taking risk and  speak about what you are going through.  Different types of supports exist; informational support, which provides informations. Psychological support, which helps you to speak about your concern. Atl last but not least, the counseling support which provides information by professional experts. The support in a groups is not only meeting and talk, it also requires to prepare events, social conventions and  arrange special activities. Members, therefore, exchange opinions and experiences unconsciously while working on a project. What is more, sharing the same interest can also help to feel your are not alone and try to pursuit the desires in the groups.

Given the points above, belonging to a group is essential for human beings. People who surround us motivate us to continue living, learning and growing. Every single person needs to communicate with others and to establish relationships due to our social necessities.  


  • Elton, Jhon, “All the girls love Alice”, 1973.
  • Sting, “I’m an Englishman in NW”, 1987.
  • Sting, “Dancing alone”, 1987.
  • Prayers for Bobby, director  Russell Mulcahy,year of release 2009